Spencer & Associates

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  • "A very special thanks. I don't know what I would have done without you. You were always there when I needed you. You helped to make the worst experience of my life so much easier to live with.

    - Nancy F.
  • “Richard Spencer was there for us from the day after my accident, representing me and my wife, and there throughout the whole lawsuit until it was settled.

    - Felix D.
  • A little over year ago I found myself in need of legal counsel. It's stressful enough when you are in an accident that stops your life as you know it.

    - Marie K.
  • My son and I were involved in a major car accident and my son was seriously injured. I met Richard and he got my son the maximum we could get.

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  • I've used Mr. Spencer's services a couple of times now and could not be happier with the level of service, his professionalism, and the manner.

    - Gabriel S.
  • Richard is my GO TO ATTORNEY, I know he will take care of my legalities and I trust Richard in every aspect of handling my law case.

    - Sandra B.

New research shows various effects of brain injury

Brain injuries are known to cause mental and personality changes in victims, some of which may be permanent or difficult to treat. Now, new research is starting to clarify the differences between different types of damage suffered after physical injury.

The amygdala, a bean-shaped piece of grey matter associated with emotional control, is larger in brains that exhibit post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). This discovery may change how we view the physical and psychological effects of a brain injury.

"It's really interesting why we might see these results," said Douglas Chang, MD, PhD, professor and chief of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service at UC San Diego Health in California. His paper published the recent discovery, specifically amygdalas 6 percent larger in PTSD patients versus those who did not exhibit PTSD after brain injury.

"Are there susceptible individuals prone to PTSD . . . so that they have a brain primed to respond to fear and startle reflexes in an exaggerated fashion? Or are these physical changes a result . . . of a brain reaction to fear conditions resulting in growth of the neural networks of the amygdala fear processing organ?"

There is no question among doctors and other specialists that a TBI causes physical changes to the organ, which often result in emotional and behavioral changes and preferences. The exact nature of these changes, however, is less well understood or agreed upon.

Victims of brain injury have rights and protections under California law that allow them to seek reimbursement for medical expenses, as well as compensation for pain and suffering following a brain injury. Legal representation is available to help victims and their families assess their options and ease recovery.

Source: MedScape, "PTSD May Be Physical, Not Just Psychological," Megan Brooks, July 21, 2017

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Woodland Hills, CA 91364

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